symbolyms: the repeated use of objects that have a meaning beyond their definition, they have a certain kind of significance.
For example, in Mockingjay, the mockingjay signifies freedom at first and then corruption and manipulation.
foreshadowing: giving hints in the reading as to let the readers infer on what is going to happen.
For, example, when in the movie, Her Majesty, the author says that they are giving her majesty the guns, and the guns belong to the woman, one can foreshadow that the girl will give the guns to the Maori.
flashback: element in which the author narrates a past event.
For example, in mockingjay, when Katniss “remembers” the past hunger Games to explain other events.
atmosphere: the emotional vibe transmitted by a work, how it makes you feel.
For example, in Harry Potter 7, when he is going to Bathilda´s house, the atmorsphere is suspenseful.
plot twist: when the author makes something unexpected happen to catch the reader’s interest.
This happens in Catching Fire, when she is rescued from the Games.
progressive time: time expressed in a chronological order.
Like in Her Majesty, the time is strictly chronological.
digressive time: when the author uses elements like foreshadowing and flashback and diverts from the central timeline.
For example during The Book Thief, the narrator constantly changes the time.
suspense: when the author gives details to the climax, without providing any obvious solution as to create cummulative feeling of uncertainty towards the resolution.
For example, in Paranormal Activity 3, you know something is going to happen, but you don’t know when, and it makes you stressful.